Application areas of Cobalt
Folding industrial use
The physical and chemical properties of cobalt determine that it is an important raw material for the production of heat-resistant alloys, hard alloys, anti-corrosion alloys, magnetic alloys and various cobalt salts. Cobalt-based alloys or cobalt-containing alloy steels are used as various high-load, heat-resistant parts in gas turbine blades, impellers, ducts, jet engines, rocket motors, missile components and chemical equipment, and as important metal materials for the atomic energy industry. Cobalt as a binder in powder metallurgy to ensure a certain toughness of cemented carbide. Magnetic alloys are indispensable materials in the modern electronics and electromechanical industries and are used to make various components of sound, light, electricity and magnetics. Cobalt is also an important part of permanent magnetic alloys. In the chemical industry, cobalt addition to high temperature alloys and corrosion-resistant alloys, but also for colored glass, pigments, enamels and catalysts, desiccants. According to the British "Metal Herald" reported from the hard metal sector and the super-alloy cobalt demand is stronger. In addition, the highest growth rate of cobalt consumption in the battery sector. Domestic reports said cobalt in the battery industry, the diamond tool industry and the application of the catalyst industry will also be further expanded, so the demand for cobalt metal is on the rise. Cobalt ore alone is generally divided into cobalt arsenide deposits, cobalt sulfide deposits and cobalt ore deposits three categories. In addition to the single cobalt deposits, a large number of deposits in the skarn iron ore, vanadium titanomagnetite, hydrothermal polymetallic deposits, various types of copper deposits, deposited CoMn, CuSnickel, nickel silicate and other deposits , Its grade is low, but the scale is often larger, is the main source of cobalt extraction. There are no uniform rules for the evaluation index of cobalt associated with the integrated deposit. Generally, the ore with good performance in metallurgy and metallurgy is more than 0.01%. Cobalt concentrate 0.2% of the value of valuable, if the large-scale metal deposits, comprehensive recovery of ore effective, how much cobalt count. Cobalt sulfur concentrate by chemical composition, concentrate is divided into six levels, are calculated by dry-mineral grade.
Preparation of alloy
Cobalt metal is mainly used for making alloy. Cobalt-based alloy is cobalt and chromium, tungsten, iron, nickel group made of one or more of the general term. Tool steel containing a certain amount of cobalt can significantly improve the wear resistance and cutting performance of steel. Stellite hardeners containing more than 50% cobalt do not lose their original hardness even when heated to 1000 ° C. Nowadays, these cemented carbides have become the most important material for use between gold cutting tools and aluminum. In this material, cobalt alloyed with other metal carbide grains together to make the alloy with higher toughness and reduce the sensitivity to impact, the alloy welding on the surface of the parts, the parts can make Life expectancy increased by 3 to 7 times. The most widely used alloys in aerospace technology are nickel-based alloys, and cobalt-based alloys can also be used, but the "strength mechanisms" for the two alloys are different. Ni-based alloys containing titanium and aluminum have high strength because of the formation of phase strengthening agents of the composition NiAl (Ti). When the operating temperature is high, the phase reinforcing agent particles are transferred to the solid solution and the alloy loses strength rapidly. The heat resistance of cobalt-based alloys is due to the formation of refractory carbides, these carbides is not easy to turn into a solid solution, diffusion activity is small, at a temperature above 1038 ℃, the superiority of cobalt-based alloys are evident. This is just as good for making high-temperature, high-temperature engines as cobalt-based alloys. The use of cobalt-based alloys containing 20% to 27% chromium in structural materials of aircraft turbines enables the material to achieve high oxidation resistance without protective coating. Nuclear reactor heating Mercury makes the thermal medium turbine generator can run continuously for over one year without overhauling. It is reported that the boiler used in the pilot of the United States is made of cobalt alloy. Cobalt is one of the few metals that can retain its magnetism once it is magnetized. Under the action of heat, the magnetic loss temperature called Curie point, Curie point of iron is 769 ℃, nickel is 358 ℃, cobalt up to 1150 ℃. The magnetic steel containing 60% cobalt has a 2.5-fold increase in the coercive force than the conventional magnetic steel. Under vibration, most magnetic steels lose almost a third of their magnetism, whereas cobalt steels lose only 2% to 3.5% of their magnetism. Therefore, the advantages of cobalt in magnetic materials are obvious. Cobalt metal is also widely used in electroplating, glass, dyeing, medical and medical applications. Lithium cobalt oxide made of lithium carbonate and cobalt oxide is the most commonly used high-energy battery cathode material in modern applications. Cobalt may also be used to make nuclear weapons, a theoretical atomic or hydrogen bomb, contained in a cobalt shell that explodes to turn dead cobalt into radioactive dust.
Preparation of paint
Cobalt is not only an important metal for making alloy steel, but also an important raw material for various advanced pigments. According to the documents preserved in the 17th century, Czarist Russia spent huge sums of money trying to buy expensive cobalt pigments called "Goluberts," meaning "blue." This "Golubitz" is painted with blue paint on the walls of many magnificent buildings such as the Kremlin's hall and Sleeping Cathedral.
In the Middle Ages, Venetian glass artisans used cobalt pigments to produce a variety of exquisite blue glass, which soon became popular all over the world. In order to make their own glass in the market indisputably competitive, the craftsmen in Venice keep secrets about the manufacturing process of glass and the formula of cobalt pigment. In order to prevent leakage of technical intelligence, the Venetian government relocated all the glassworks to an islet, and no one was allowed to visit the place without permission. However, one apprentice named Giovanni Bereño, who was unwilling to endure the boring life on the island or escaped from the island, fled to Germany where he opened a glass factory himself He did not escape the disaster. One day a man set fire to his factory and gave him "blood" from the factory owner who escaped from the island, almost losing his life. Visible, Venetian Cobalt paint secrets see how important. 
More than 500 years ago, China's mass-produced cloisonne was also fired with blue cobalt pigments. Jingtai during the Ming Dynasty produced this metal art still world-renowned. It is said that there are many foreign intelligence personnel do everything possible to get the cloisonne formula and firing process.
Some cobalt compounds, in different states and temperatures, with unpredictable color. According to records, the famous 16th century chemist and doctor Paracelsus often love his acting skills, won spectacular applause every time. He showed the audience an oil painting of winter scenery covered with snow-covered trees and hills. After they had appreciated enough, he "changed" the winter painting in full view. It was summer: the snow on the trees disappeared, turning into clusters of greenery; the white snow-covered hills became hillsides full of green grass. The audience all praise, but I do not know the mystery. In fact, this is a magic that Paracelsas uses as its cobalt compound. Originally at room temperature, cobalt chloride can be made into a white solution (the solution contains a certain amount of nickel and iron), Paracelsas painting on this solution, the painting is done, as long as a little heating , Cobalt chloride will become very beautiful green. Paracelsas performed the first application of cobalt chloride solution to his magic painting, and then while the audience to enjoy the picture without noticing his moment, deftly put a candle quietly behind the canvas to heat it, As a result, cobalt chloride becomes green after heating, stunned seasonal changes also took place.
Folding medical use
Cobalt is an integral part of vitamin B12, and ruminants synthesize the intake of cobalt into vitamin B12 in the intestine, whereas humans and monogastric animals can not synthesize cobalt in the body B12. The other functions of cobalt are not yet known, but only about 10% of the cobalt in the body is in the form of vitamins. It has been observed that inorganic cobalt plays an important role in stimulating erythropoiesis. A kind of anemia with folic acid, iron, B12 treatment are ineffective, some people with high doses of cobalt chloride can treat such anemia. However, such repeated doses of cobalt can cause poisoning. The mechanism by which cobalt acts on erythropoiesis is that the kidneys release erythropoietin, or circulate by stimulating guanidine. Cobalt was also observed to cause vasodilation and redness of the face due to the release of soothing carnosine by the kidneys, which may have an effect on the function of the thyroid. Animal studies have shown that the synthesis of thyroxine may require cobalt and cobalt to antagonize iodine deficiency The impact of.
Cobalt elements can stimulate the body's hematopoietic system of bone marrow, prompting the synthesis of hemoglobin and red blood cell number increased. Mostly in the form of vitamin B12 to participate in the body's physiological role. The mechanism by which cobalt stimulates hematopoiesis is to stimulate hematopoiesis by producing erythropoietin. Cobalt elements can inhibit intracellular respiratory enzymes, so that tissue cells hypoxia, stimulate stimulation of erythropoietin production, and thus promote bone marrow hematopoiesis. the role of iron metabolism. Cobalt can promote intestinal absorption of iron to accelerate the storage of iron into the bone marrow. through the involvement of vitamin B12 ribonucleic acid and hemopoietic material metabolism, the role of hematopoietic process. cobalt can promote spleen release of red blood cells (hemoglobin increased, reticulocytes, erythrocyte hyperplasia, peripheral blood red blood cells increased), thereby promoting hematopoietic function.