Introduction to Toxicology of Nickel
Folded carbonyl nickel
Nickel metal has almost no acute toxicity, nickel toxicity is generally low, but nickel carbonyl can produce very strong toxicity. Nickel carbonyl in the form of vapor quickly absorbed by the respiratory tract, but also a small amount of absorption from the skin, the former is the operating environment, the main way poison invades the body. Nickel carbonyl at a concentration of 3.5μg / m will make people feel like the smell of lights, low concentrations of discomfort. Absorption of nickel carbonyl can cause acute poisoning, 10 minutes or so there will be initial symptoms, such as: dizziness, headache, unsteady gait, and sometimes nausea, vomiting, chest tightness; late symptoms are again after 12 to 36 hours of exposure to nausea, Vomiting, fever, difficulty breathing, chest pain and more. Exposure to high concentrations of acute chemical pneumonitis, eventually pulmonary edema and respiratory failure caused by death exposure to lethal dose, the death occurred 4 to 11 days after the accident. Peculiar symptoms of human nickel poisoning are dermatitis, respiratory disorders and respiratory cancer.
Mutagenicity: Tumorigenicity: Hamster embryo 5μmol / L.
Reproductive toxicity: rat oral minimum toxic dose (TDL0): 158mg / kg (multi-generation), embryo poisoning, fetal death.
Carcinogenicity: IARC Carcinogenicity Comments: The animal is a positive reaction.
Migration and Transformation: Nickel in natural water is often dissolved in water as halides, nitrates, sulfates, and certain inorganic and organic complexes. Soluble ions in water combine with water to form hydrated ions (Ni (H2O) 6) and form soluble organic ions with amino acids, cystine, fulvic acid and the like, which migrate with water. The migration of nickel in water is mainly caused by the formation of precipitation and coprecipitation and the migration of sediment to the sediment in the crystal sediments. The total migration of nickel accounts for 80% of the total migration; the migration of dissolved forms and solid adsorbed forms accounts for only 5% . For this reason, most of the nickel in water is enriched in sediment, which contains 18 ~ 47ppm nickel and 38000 ~ 92000 times nickel in water. Nickel in the soil comes mainly from weathering of rock, dust from the atmosphere, irrigation water (including nickel-containing wastewater), fertilization on farmland, decay of plant and animal remains. Plant growth and farmland drainage, in turn, can remove nickel from the soil. Nickel ions that enter the soil as a rule are absorbed by the soil-borne inorganic and organic complexes and mainly accumulate on the surface.