Study history of Cobalt
Cobalt, known in early China and used in pottery glazes, has been used by ancient Greeks and Romans to make stained glass from its compounds to create a beautiful dark blue. The blue color of China's Tang Dynasty porcelain is also due to the presence of cobalt compounds. Cobalt-containing blue ore cobaltite Cobalt, known as kobalt in Europe in the Middle Ages, first appeared in the writings of the German mineralogist Agricola Agricola, a member of the Czech Republic in the 16th century, in German "demon". This may have been the case at the time that the ore was useless and was used as a deterrent to the health of workers due to the arsenic contained in the cobalt-cobalt mine. Cobalt's Latin name cobaltum and the elemental symbol Co are today the word "demon" in German, due to the ignorance of new things at that time. In 1753, G. Brandt, a Swedish chemist, isolated light-gray, gray-colored metal from cobaltite, which is the purer cobalt metal. Therefore Brent is considered the discoverer of cobalt. In 1780, pure cobalt was made by the Swedish chemist T. Bergman, confirming that cobalt is a metal element. In 1789, Lavoisier first included it in the periodic table.
A small amount of cobalt was first produced in Germany and Norway, and cobalt oxide ore in New Caledonia was developed in 1874. In 1903, the production of cobalt and cobalt arsenic and cobalt arsenite (northern side) in northern Ontario, Canada, started to increase the world cobalt production from 16 tons in 1904 to 1553 tons in 1909. After the development of the copper and cobalt belt in Katanga Province in Zaire in 1920, cobalt production has been the highest in the world. In Morocco, cobalt is produced from arsenic and cobalt ore, and cobalt is mainly produced by fire during this period. Since then, on the eve of World War II, Finland extracted cobalt from cobalt-bearing pyrite cinders and sent it to West Germany for chlorination after the war, until the CoCola Cobalt Plant was established in 1968. Japan, France and Belgium have larger cobalt refineries that deal with the cobalt-rich intermediates in the Philippines, Australia, Morocco and Zambia respectively. The smelting of this cobalt-rich country and the refined cobalt-metallurgical structure of the developed industrialized countries using cobalt still occupy a major position to this day. Cobalt-rich countries also set up a relatively large-scale cobalt metallurgical plant complete. A variety of wet methods have become the primary method of extracting cobalt.
Compared with the world, China's cobalt industry started late. In 1952, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, a mining company with a simple blast furnace smelting cobaltite mineral cobalt. In 1954, Shenyang Smelter produced the first batch of cobalt by using wet-process zinc cobalt slag as raw material and opened the prelude to the production of electro-cobalt in China. The zinc smelting plant in Shenyang smelted zinc to remove the cobalt to produce cobalt xanthate, The factory takes the cobalt slag as raw material, and reduces and dissolves the cobalt and cobalt to produce the cobalt hydroxide containing Co 30% ~ 40% by the reduction and dissolution, and then is dried and calcined to reduce the crude metal cobalt by an electric furnace and finally obtained by an electrolytic refining method Electric cobalt. In 1956, a Jiangxi smelter was built according to the process, and the produced cobalt iron was sent to Shanghai Sanying Electrification Plant (predecessor of Shanghai Smelter). Meixian, Guangdong also use the same process from the cobalt ore smelting of cobalt iron to send Chaozhou smelter to deal with the production of industrial cobalt oxide. In 1958, the Ganzhou cobalt smelter produced cobalt oxide from the local cobaltite. Due to the fragmentation of local cobalt mineral resources and the inability to conduct large-scale mining operations, the Ganzhou cobalt smelter started processing the arsenic-cobalt mine imported from Morocco in 1960 under the arrangement of the Ministry of Metallurgical Industry. This is the beginning of cobalt production in China from imported cobalt raw materials. In 1966, Huludao Zinc Plant built the first workshop to recover cobalt from cobalt-sulfur concentrates, and later built the cobalt workshop of Nanjing Iron and Steel Plant Cobalt Workshop, Zibo Cobalt Refinery and Hubei Phosphorus Chemical Fertilizer Plant. Gansu Jinchuan, Sichuan Huili, Jilin Rock copper and nickel ore development, copper sulfide nickel ore has become an important resource recovery of cobalt.